Monday, September 16, 2019

Submarine Sandwich and Subway

Subway’s Domestic and International Marketing Plan Presented by Moses Ballenger The University of Houston – Victoria International Marketing (MKT 6377) 2011 Summer Session Table of Contents 2. – Letter of Recommendation 3. – Executive Summary 4. – Introduction, Background, Summary and update of the case study 2. 1 – Target Market Analysis 2. 12 – Primary Target Market 2. 13 – Primary Target Market Demographics 2. 14 – Secondary Target Markets 2. 2 – SWOT Analysis 2. 21 – Strengths (3 strengths) 2. 22 – Weaknesses (3 Weaknesses) 2. 23 – Opportunities (3 Opportunities from the macro environment analysis) 2. 4 – Threats (3 Threats from the macro environment analysis) 2. 3 – Competition Analysis 2. 31 – Primary Competitor 2. 32 – Secondary Competition 2. 4 – Keys to Success (3 keys to success of the company in order) 2. 5 – Macro Environment Analysis 2. 51 – Economy (2 macro economy factors) 2. 52 – Culture (2 macro culture factors) 2. 53 – Politics, Rules, and Regulations (2 factors) 2. 54 – Technology (2 factors) 3. 1 – Mission Statement 3. 2 – Marketing Objectives (3 Objectives in order of importance) 3. 3 – Financial Objectives (From the competition analysis) 3. – Positioning strategy (From the competition analysis) 3. 5 – Marketing Mix Strategies 3. 51 – Product Strategy 3. 52 – Price Strategy 3. 53 – Promotion Strategy 3. 54 – Place Strategy 4. 0 – References 5. 0 – Appendices (Promotion flyer and other) 1. 2 Letter of Recommendation Subway Franchise Headquarters/Doctor’s Associates Inc. CEO, President, Co-Founder 325 Bic Drive Milford, Connecticut 06461 United States Dear Mr. Fred DeLuca, I would like to thank you first for the opportunity to conduct the marketing assessment proposal for your company.I hope you find m y recommendations satisfactory in this letter, which is summarized below. Subway must first be honored for its accomplishments so far to date. Such success has come about from a small business partnership out of Bridgeport, Connecticut to big international success. As stated in your vision, Subway strives to be the #1 quick service restaurants in the world, while delivering fresh, delicious sandwiches, and exceptional experience. I believe that such a vision is achievable for the global, Japanese, and emerging markets.Despite the challenges and failures of the Japanese market entry, there is much opportunity, lesson, and market share to capture. My primary recommendation discussed in the proposal is that Subway conducts an aggressive and re-entry approach to Japan. This aggressive, re-entry approach needs to be more adaptive to the Japanese/Asian culture this time. This adaptation will need to take place from an advertising and product perspective most importantly. How effective Sub way focuses on these two aspects will determine their success in Japan and Asia.While Subway has been highly successful in their global expansion, the Japanese and Asian markets will call for more adoption and customization. Nowadays, value, expressed as a level of quality for an affordable price seems to have traction in the global marketplace. Emergence of â€Å"cost-consciousness† seems to be reshaping business. Subway has done a great job at remaining flexible enough to change its operational policies and wise enough to listen to its franchisees. Subway must continue to take this practice into Japan and Asian, while focusing on their core competencies.Subway will have to listen to what problems franchisees are having and make adjustments accordingly. It’s the franchisee that’s on the front line, seeing the daily operations, challenges, and customer interaction. I hope you find the research and recommendations sufficient to act on. Thank you again for your ti me and consideration. 1. 3 Executive Summary Subway represents an excellent case study of a truly globalized company in today’s market place. The company’s focused its roots from owner Fred DeLuca, who has had a clear vision for the future of the Subway  ® brand as it continues to grow and serve its customers.The passion for delighting customers by serving fresh, delicious, made-to-order sandwiches and providing people with quick, cheap, and nutritious meals has contributed Subway to being the franchise leader in the fast food industry. Subway’s clever advertising, pricing strategy, flexibility, and operational efficiency have allowed them to expand and be profitable beyond domestic borders. Such success has allowed Subway to venture into several international markets. Subway has withstood the recent 2009 economic downturns that plague a variety of industries partially due to favorable industry circumstances and its own innovative actions.Despite Subwayâ€℠¢s past domestic and international success, it is having difficulty in other markets like Japan. To be success in challenging markets like Japan and new/emerging markets, Subway will have to continue to think â€Å"outside the box†. This thinking may have to be customized to the extent of each particular market or country. These challenging and â€Å"un-tapped† markets of Japan, Latin America, and Asia for Subway are saturated with domestic competitors like McDonald’s, Starbucks, KFC and international competitors like Mos Burger, Mister Donut, and Yoshinoya.Subway is capital rich with a strong brand image and is therefore positioned well and capable of making large investments in the Asian, Latin America, and other markets. The Subway brand success in other countries shows that it can be customized to local cultures and markets for global expansion success. Despite the challenges, Subway has much potential and is well positioned to create profitability and marke t share in Japan, Asia and other markets. Subway will need to continue to be innovative, market its strengths, make the necessary adjustments to failures, and take advantage of opportunities. 1. Introduction, Background, summary and update of the case study Introduction Subway is an American restaurant franchise that sells mainly submarine sandwiches (subs) and salads. It also offers breakfast items such as bagels and egg & sausage sandwiches. In addition Subway makes personal pizzas and salads upon order. It main office is in Milford, Connecticut, with five regional centers supporting the growing international operations. Regional offices are in the Netherlands, Australia, Lebanon, India, and Florida. Background Subway is owned and operated by Doctor’s Associates Inc. (DAI) and was founded by Fred De Luca and Peter Buck in 1966.The name comes from the fact that Peter Buck holds a doctorate degree. On August 28, 1965 Fred De Luca borrowed $1,000 from family friend Peter Buck to start his first sandwich shop. In 1966, they opened their second Subway restaurant in New York Summary of Case The case presentation is a marketing plan for Subway’s up coming 2012 fiscal year. In addition, a detailed SWOT analysis is included. The marketing plan contains a target market analysis which explains Subway’s target markets and demographics. A competition analysis is included, which identifies Subway and it competitors in the industry.The marketing plan includes strategy suggestions in regard to product, price, promotion, and place. These strategy recommendations are aimed toward fulfilling the suggested mission statements as well. Update of Case Study During the construction of this marketing plan, Subway continues to move on its globalization strategy thru its aggressive franchising campaign. The Subway franchise was ranked the number-one franchise in the submarine sandwich category in the 2011 Franchise 500 Issue of Entrepreneur Magazine. As of today S ubway has 34,824 stores in 98 countries and hopes to expand 2,010 restaurants in the U. K. and Ireland. 2. 1 Target Market Analysis Subway conducts a standard market analysis that focuses on a target market area. In the target market, Subway focuses on the highest potential opportunity and will render the greatest return. Like any other company, Subway will steer away from unattractive markets that offer low return and opportunity 2. 12 Primary Target Market The primary target market consists of individual customers mostly thru the ages of 16 – 36 years old, who are healthy and cost conscious [1]. Subway intends to market these individuals as a healthier fast-food option as compared to others such as Mc. Donald’s and Burger King. . 13 Primary Market Demographics Subway provides fast food services of sandwiches for individuals and businesses in different industries. In addition, the company provides franchisor services to its franchisee in the form of support and guidan ce. . The increase in sales of the sandwiches lately has put the hamburger behind as the #1 fast food sought for. Such a desire in sandwiches sales has been a result of a decrease in consumer spending on hamburgers and fries. A more demand has been toward healthier options. Sales of sandwiches are growing 15% annually, outpacing sales of burgers and steaks (McCarthy, 2006).The demand demographics in this market depends on consumer preferences and consumer preference trends. Currently in the market, particularly the U. S. , there is an increased emphasis on healthier and affordable food choices as compared to the past. Subway typical operates in high metropolitan and condensed areas, but now subway franchises have expanded to outside of urban areas to rural areas. It’s not uncommon to see a subway storefront in a small town. In addition Subway store front also operate out of unconventional locations such as schools, universities, stadiums, museums, military stations, truck sto ps, and gas stations. . 14 Secondary Target Markets Subway also functions as franchisor, so it continually seeks business opportunities with potential investors of franchises. Subway provides prospective investors with franchise information, guidance, and seminars. There is also a FAQ on the company website to answer the most common questions about franchisee opportunities. Subway main business is to sell sub sandwiches to individuals, which drives the main business and secondly to captured qualified and successful franchisees to grow their business. 2. 2 SWOT Analysis 2. 21 Strengths 1.Brand Name Subway’s brand image and appeal has grown significantly thru its healthy and nutritional advertising, it celebrity advertising, and it affordable products. According to Entrepenuer. com was the number 1 franchise in 2001. 2. Product Offering Despite the heavy competition in product offering in the fast food industry. Subway has continued to battle in this category against its compet itors of Mc Donald’s, Jack in the Box, KFC, and many more. Subway increased its sandwich offerings such as the BBQ pulled pork, along with adding new breakfast items, salads, and pizza.Along with its increased product offerings, the company has added a healthy and nutritional food concept and has successfully appealed to customers as a healthier option. 3. Simple Franchise operations Subway has a franchise system that is extremely simple compared to other franchises. From an operational standpoint, the preparation of a sandwich is mostly done in front of the customer and has simple steps to make all their sandwiches. From a startup perspective, a franchisee can build a store well under $200,000. According to Enterpenuer. com, Subway has cheaper start up costs than Mc.Donald’s, Pizza Hut, KFC, and Dunkin Donuts. Low start up costs have allowed Subway to venture out in non traditional outlets like hospitals, schools, and retail stores like Home Depot and Wal Mart. 2. 22 Weaknesses 1. No Product Differentiation Subway’s product offerings have no trademark or patent protection, so it products are no different from its competitors. The only variable that sets Subway apart from its competition is its price. Against its competition, Subway offerings are limited. Other sandwich shops such as Potbelly’s, which-wich, and Quizno’s offer more meat and sandwich type choices. 2.Franchise Over Saturation in certain markets In an interview with Franchise 500, franchise consultant and CEO of FranChoice Jeff Elgin says that there are complaints about encroachment issues –concerns that they’re putting too many units close together. 3. Bottleneck in Franchise Growth – In contrast to the over saturation of franchise stores, there also has been some stunting of growth in this regard. In an interview with Franchise 500, CEO DeLuca says that there is a bottleneck in Subway’s growth, with many franchisees still searching f or a storefront. The real estate bust and frozen credit have slowed openings. . 23 Opportunities 1. Growth ( International) Subway has more potential than its competitors for continued success in profits and growth in the domestic and foreign markets. 2. Improved Franchise Relations Despites the past issues between Subway and it franchisees, there is still room and opportunity for the company to enhance their relationships. Such an enhancement will lead to increased satisfaction among franchisees and improved reputation to Subway. This will eventually lead to increased intrinsic value for the company and increased financial value. 3. Untapped Product OfferingsSubway has the potential to further contend and exceed their competitors in their product offering range. The company will have to make continued investments into research and development and testing to see what products work. Subway has room to experiments with different meats, cheeses, bread, and other fixins. Since the compa ny is global they can expand their product offerings to foreign consumers taste preferences. 2. 3 Competition Analysis The Fast food industry is under constant and evolving competition. The main competitors in this industry are McDonald’s, Yum Brands, Wendy’s, and Jack-in-the- Box.Yum Brands consists of KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and Long John Silver’s. In addition, Subway faces secondary competitive pressures from other sandwich makers like Quiznos, Jimmy Johns, Potbelly’s, Lenny’s Subs, Firehouse Subs, Which-wich and many others. With the increased sales of sandwiches in recent years as compared to burgers, secondary competition should be well on the rise for Subway. (13) 4. Keys to Success According to Michael McCarthy, success factors will include products and marketing targeted to healthier menu selections, brand consistency, low start-up costs, franchisee support, and consumer convenience.This success factors covers the scope of Subwayâ€℠¢s current challenges and concerns. Subways continued success will continue to thrive off its brand, attractive low franchise costs, and healthy menus selection. However, Subway will have to focus on improving their relations with franchisees. A lack of mismanagement of the franchisee issues could lead to catastrophic results for the company. 5. Macro Environment Analysis 2. 51 Economy In 2008 and 2009, the world seemed turned upside down by negative economics events. The financial meltdown in the U. S. lagued several industries, reduced the availability of credit, and created massive job losses. The two effects created massive ripple effects in every regard, such as reduced consumer spending and increase cost consciousness. The fast-food industry seemed unaffected despite and Subway seemed to find a sweet growth in a sour economy. Companies like Starbucks suffered when customers get the jitters about paying for premium coffee. But Subway managed to do supremely well in a down econo my where its $5 dollar foot long and other value food items appealed to cost conscious customers.As a whole the industry has embraced value meals, cutting prices and offering more or less. It has been a reaction to more consumers who are avoiding restaurants in an effort to save money. For the industry, price-cutting is a tested technique to weather an economic downturn. Subway has proven such so far during the U. S. sluggish economy my offering daily value meals and monthly specials like the $2 cold cut and meatball subs for July. 2. 52 Culture Subway has capitalized on the health conscious revolution by focusing its advertising on its healthy but tasty offerings.It featured a testimonial by a satisfied customer, Jared Fogle, who stated that he lost 245 pounds by substituting on 6’ Subway sandwich a day for one of his meals. The results were impressive and the company embraced the Jared testimonial of the health benefits of eating its food compared to others. The Jared campa ign proved to have excellent timing during the health consciousness revolution in America. After the company realized the value of Jared’s testimonial, it applied its professional communications staff to create appealing advertising, harness social media, and develop online relationship building activities. Pina, 2010). From the point Subway launched as series of health initiatives in response to the high demand of the â€Å"health culture†, such as â€Å"Eat Fresh† and modified its corporate web site to the nutritional and health informative needs of its customers and the public. 2. 24 Threats 1. Franchisee Disparity – Subway has had a continued history of franchisee dissatisfaction. Such dissatisfaction has come from franchisor support, franchise contractual arrangements, and over saturation of franchises in some markets. These disparities will affect the public image of Subway as an investment choice among investors and it profits.The extent of franchi see dissatisfaction has even led to litigation and class action law suits over Subways’ poor contractual provisions. 2. Franchisee Disparity (Revenues) – Franchisee disparity is two-fold. The other side of the disparity is poor franchise performance. This disparity can be seen as early as 1998. In a CNN Money article, consultant Cliff Marshall estimates that 25% of franchisees are unhappy and suffering, while about 40% are just getting by and making a few dollars, and 30-35% are happy and doing fine, though many of the happiest owners are also agents, who can control the number of competing Subways. . Competition – An ongoing threat to Subway is its own competition with the fast food industry. Its biggest competitor, McDonald’s will constantly stay on its heals in competition in terms of global expansion, product offering, financial performance, and many other variables. In addition, other competitors like Quiznos, Which wich, Jack n-the Box continue to o ffer more product offerings and competitive prices . Any slow or bad year for Subway could lead it to be easily bumped down in the franchise ranking. 2. 53 Politics, Rules and RegulationsSubway is under regulation over several federal, state, local agencies. In addition the company can become subject to pressure from consumer watch/advocacy groups. Given that Subway is in the fast food industry, the company like its competitors have seen significant pressure in corporate social responsibility on food quality for consumers. For example, according to the Center of Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) and more than 30 other national and local health advocacy groups and experts have urges Subway to set nutritional standards for foods marketed to children.According to the CSPI and other groups, Subway is missing from industry self-regulatory programs. CSPI and other groups wants Subway to join the Council of Better Business Bureau’s Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI). Since Subway resides in the fast food industry, it has also came under heavy subjection for calorie content, Trans fat, and portion sizes. In response to such Subway has become more transparent in its product offerings to consumers. In addition is has labeled the fat and calorie content on some of its sandwiches online and in the stores.If you go to Subway’s website, and click on a given product, it will show the nutritional information. Such a disclosure of informational has resulted from national and local group pressure. 2. 54 Technology The use of technology is playing a significant role in the outcome of international business success. Subway must devise a technology strategy that will keep it well informed on it sales metrics, customer spending behavior, and inventory management. The use of e commerce and web-enables services with suppliers and vendors will be necessary in today’s business climate.All these technological pursuits will need to aim at customer satisfaction, inventory efficiencies, gathering critical information quickly. The use of technologies such as internet and Point-of-Sale will be pivotal for Subway and its franchisee’s to gather and collect information quickly and efficiently as compared to traditional ways. With POS data can be processed to provide instant information on weekly sales movements and market shares of individual stores. POS also renders better data quality. It can act as virtually comptroller of information. (Kotabe, Helsen 2010).According to Restaurant Informer. com, another trend in quick-service restaurants (QSR) is the use of kiosk ordering and contactless payment options. Installing Kiosks saves labor and cuts down on staff errors. Such errors can be on wasted food or register errors. The Subway is currently experimenting with kiosks, allowing customers to select their own order. 3. 1 Mission Statement â€Å"Delight every customer so they want to tell their friends  œ with great value through fresh, delicious, made-to-order sandwiches, and an exceptional experience. 3. 2 Marketing ObjectivesGlobalization is a increasing pattern in today’s markets. Subway success is still heavily dependent on its U. S. operations, since roughly 20,000 of the 34,842 worldwide stores are in the U. S. Therefore revenues are highly dependent on the domestic stores/franchises. Since Subway is a privately held company, any form of marketing objectives will not published. Therefore, I have suggested a set of marketing objectives for the upcoming 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. Objective 1 (Continue International Expansion) – Subway continues to grow globally each year.Based off the chart below, Subway is expanding 2,000 stores on average since 1995. If this trend continues and all variable remain constant the company by volume will capture more revenues over time. Such increase in volumes may or may not fulfill the financial objectives mentioned below. [pic] Objective 2 (Capture more global revenues and market share) – In conjunction with Objective 1, Subway will need to focus on capturing more revenues for 2011 and 2010 in international markets. More store-front expansion will lead to less dependency on the U. S. market performance and economic climate.According to Micheal McCarthy the U. S. fast food market has seen a healthy rise in growth in the last three years, with a compound annual growth rate of 2. 3% between 2005 and 2010. The overall market value from this is $57billion by the end of 2010. Given this information, it can be inferred that the growth rate will continue at this pace. So for 2011 and 2012 the fast food industry should be valued around $58 and $59 million respectfully. Given this incremental pattern, Subway should look to increase the market share by 1-5% domestically. Such a market share goal is feasible and reasonable.This domestic goal should be used as a guidance for calculating international figures. Ea ch individual foreign market would have to be assessed to determine what type of marketing objectives. Objective 3 (Make Key Strategic Partnerships in Foreign Markets) – Regardless if the market is Japan or Latin American, Subway will need to make key strategic alliances with host country firms when necessary. Such alliances will avoid costly and failed entries, such as Japan. Given the nature of Subway’s franchise business, franchisees take majority of the burden for failed performance.The nature of the strategic alliance will vary from each market. Subway may have to make different types of alliance between Japan and Latin America for example. It is evident that a unique form of strategic alliance will be needed for Japan as compared to Latin America. Clearly Subway will need a strategic alliance, where a Japanese advertising firm will do the promotion and advertising to help get the brand across. Another strategic alliance that could be made in Japan is one with Jap anese organic farmers and meat producers.This alliance could bring in the fresh organic ingredients needed for the appeal to Japanese consumers. 3. 3 Financial Objectives Since Subway is privately held, the company is not subject to stockholder expectations and pressures. However, the company is subjected to heavy competitive pressures. Such pressures have transpired to financial performance. Objective 1 (Increase Domestic & Global Revenues): According to â€Å"The Week†, Subway’s revenues in 2010 was $15. 2 billion, while Mc Donald’s was $ 24 billion.. Subway had 33. 749 stores worldwide, while Mc Donald’s 32,737 stores in 2010.Clearly this shows the top two competitors in the industry battling intensely. Subway clearly is behind in revenues overall and revenues per outlet. Objective 2 ( Increase Franchisee Financial Performance): Given the franchise business model, Subway does have an obligation to service and support franchisees in their store-front go als and challenges. Given this, overall franchise and franchisee financial objectives should be noted separately. Given the revenue figures mentioned above, Subway and its franchisees need work together to reduce operational costs by all measures.Sure a decrease in operational costs will help increase revenue per franchisee and make them more competitive with McDonald’s and other competitors. Such a focus to work with franchisee satisfaction will increase demand in the long run for Subway franchisee contracts and increase intrinsic value for the company. Objective 3 (Adjust Royalty fees): It can be inferred that Subway needs to increase its overall revenues and revenue per franchise in order to close the gap between its biggest competitor. To meet this financial objective will be challenging.The company globally is seeing a rise in operational expenses in the form of rising minimum wage, utilities, and food processing. It appears that the quickest adjustment that the company can make to increase revenues is to reduce or increase the royalty franchise fees. According to Subway’s FAQs on its website, royalty fees are 8% of a franchisee’s revenues in the U. S.. However the company may need to make royalty adjustments worldwide and test the effects of a increase or decrease on overall revenue and revenue per franchise. 3. 4 Positioning StrategyAccording to Smithfam. com, a positioning strategy results in the image you want to draw in the mind of your customers, the picture you want him/her to visualize of you, what you offer, in relation to the market situation, and any competition you may have. † Since Subway operates in a highly competitive fast food environment both domestically and abroad, the company will have to keep its competitors in perspective when formulating a positioning strategy. The company should evaluate their competitors’ strengths in the Japanese market and incorporate it into their strategy.For example competit or, Mos Burger uses good quality ingredients, which reflects the chains higher prices and wholesome image. This has led to Mos Burgers’ success in Japan. While accomplishing all the noted above, Subway needs to stay focused on its core competencies and values that has gotten them to where they are today. 3. 5 Marketing Mix Strategies 3. 51 Product Strategy Subway provides products with a global brand that is well-known and, most importantly, healthy, with lots of flavor and variety on its menu. Subway product line consists of numerous varieties of sandwiches served with different fillings and on different types of bread.The choices are complex but the product line is anchored by one choice: 6 inches or 1 foot long. Subway has been successful in the U. S. with its product offerings, pricing, and advertising and has led to a strategic advantage for the company. Subway promotes its sandwiches as fresh, healthy and made-to-order. They use the slogan â€Å"Eat Fresh†. In th e international marketplace where Subway is trying to gain its footing, in terms of market penetration and gained market share, the company will need modify its product strategy differently from its international and domestic strategy to fit the needs of Japan and Asian countries.Since Japan and Asian countries have been such a challenge for the company, it will critical for Subway to develop a effective product strategy. Out of the four P’s in the marketing mix, Product strategy will be main determinate of Subway’s success in Japan. Subway promotes its sandwiches as fresh, healthy and made-to-order. They use the slogan â€Å"Eat Fresh†. This concept and slogan can be effective in Japan, but will have to be taken in a further context to satisfy Japanese consumers. Japanese consumers think of healthy food more in terms of quality – for example, how fresh, pure, or organic ingredients are than in terms of ts calorie or fat content or cholesterol level. Subw ay may have to modify its product strategy to show its quality more transparently with consumers or switch to organic ingredients. Therefore different investments made have to be made in higher quality foods as compared to other countries/markets. 3. 52 Price Strategy Pricing will correlate with product as an important factor of the marketing mix. A overhaul or significant modification in product strategy will affect pricing strategy accordingly.Given the product strategies suggested above, Subway may have to adjust its pricing for sandwiches if all organic ingredients will be used in Japan. This however may not translate to a negative response from consumers in Japan. Japanese consumers may be willing to pay more for a sub sandwich if it’s made of quality, fresh, and organic ingredients. Customer’s willingness to pay will vary across cultures [text book] and products that are perceived as good value in one culture may have little to no value in other cultures.So who k nows, maybe the $5 foot long concept will evolve to $ 6 foot long in Japan, where the Japanese see it as the same value as U. S. consumers. Another alternative maybe to pass the costs of â€Å"going organic† in Japan to other products, such as chips, drinks, cookies, or salads? In the end, to establish a stronger brand image and sustain/grow a market presence, Subway may have to subsidize their pricing to gain some market share and familiarity in Japan. This approach may be necessary until a market presence has been established and then the company can build in pricing promotions similar to the U. S. such as weekly value meals, monthly values deals ( $2 cold-cut & meat ball sandwiches in July), and foot-long specials ($5 foot long). 3. 53 Promotion Strategy Subway is the one of largest franchises in the world with a global presence that can be felt and seen. Despite this, such a global presence hasn’t been entirely felt in Japan and other Asian countries. Former franch isee owner Tetsuzo, Ono, in an interview with England’s The Times newspaper in 2002, said that â€Å"people who didn’t know sandwiches never saw any commercials, never heard any word of mouth and because the chain did not grow, never passed a store on the street†.Given this feedback from franchisees and the lack of success in Japan, Subway will need to revamp their promotion strategy. Such a promotion campaign will need to be focused on advertising, promotions, and direct marketing. Focusing on these three aspects will cover all distribution channels and get the word out to Japanese consumers. Subway can use channels such as internet, television, sport organizations, and special events. In addition the promotion strategy needs to be strictly adaptive and customized to the Japanese and Asian cultures. 54. Place StrategyPlace refers to distribution and also can be thought of as the â€Å"place of purchase†. This strategy asks â€Å"Do you want your product to be everywhere? or â€Å" do you want to create demand for it because its’ exclusive and hard to find? † [2] Its very important for Subway to be cautious with its’ place strategy because such a strategy makes a statement about the quality and â€Å"status† of their product. Typically Subway places its stores in commercial areas or as â€Å"stand-alone† stores. Subway will also place store fronts in unconventional locations, what Subway calls â€Å"unique stores† on its website.Such stores will be museums, airports, military bases, schools, colleges, stadiums, supermarkets, and gas stations. At the moment, Subway seems to be well positioned and on track in terms of place. There are already 115 stores in Japan. According to the franchise application guide book, Subway is focusing on opening more stores around Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe. In these cities, Subway will target downtown areas, business areas, amusement centers, and rail statio n hubs. References 1) The Week (2011, March 8). Subway, the World’s biggest restaurant chain: By the numbers. Retrieved, in 16h July 2011, from http://theweek. om/article/index/212902/subway-the-worlds-biggest-restaurant-chain-by-the-numbers 2) Subway Restaurant website. History. US. Retrieved, in 16th July 2011, from http://www. subway. com/subwayroot/AboutSubway/history/subwayHistory. aspx 3) Michael McCarty (July 2006). Fast Food Market Forecast- The Subway Example of Strategic Product Positioning. Ezine Articles. Retrieved, in 17th July 2011, http://ezinearticles. com/? Fast-Food-Market-Forecast—The-Subway-Example-of-Strategic-Product-Positioning&id=735770 4) Entrepreneur Magazine (January 2009). Top 10 Franchises of 2009. Retrieved, in 16th July 2011, from http://www. ntrepreneur. com/magazine/entrepreneur/2009/january/199094. html 5) Entrepreneur Magazine (2011) 2011 Global Franchising Rankings. Retrieved, in 16th July 2011, from http://www. entrepreneur. com/fra nchises/rankings/topglobal-115388/2011,. html 7) Richard Behar (1998 March 16) Why Subway is†¦ Fortune Magazine. CNN Money. Retrieved, in 16th July 2011, from http://money. cnn. com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1998/03/16/239302/index. htm 8) Margie Walker. (2008 August) Using Technology to Increase Your Bottom Line. Restaurant Informer. com. Retrieved, in 17th July 2011, http://www. restaurantinformer. om/2008/07/using-technology-to-increase-your-bottom-line/ 9) Synergy Resources (2008 February 12). Synergy Resources Announces Successful Implementation of ERP System at Visual Graphic Systems in NYC. Retrieved, in 16th July 2011, http://www. synergyresources. net/pdf/Visual_Graphic_Systems_-_Press_Release. pdf 10) Official Subway Restaurant website. US. Retrieved, in 14th July 2011, from http://www. subway. com/subwayroot/index. aspx 11) Subway Restaurant website. World. Retrieved, in 15th July 2011, from http://world. subway. com/Countries/frmNutrition. aspx? CC=AUS&LC=EN G&Mode 12) Official Subway Restaurant website.Q&A. UK. Retrieved, in 15th July 2011, from http://www. subway. com/subwayroot/index. aspx 13) Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. SWOT. Retrieved, in 15th July 2011, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/SWOT_analysis 14) Entrepreneur Magazine (January 2009). Top 10 Franchises of 2009. Retrieved, in 14th July 2011, from http://www. entrepreneur. com/magazine/entrepreneur/2009/january/199094. html 15) Romero, Dennis. (2009). Subway hit the spot. Entrepreneur, Vol. 37(1), p 125 – 133, 8p. Retrieved from Business Source Complete 16) Comes, Steve. (2010). Fred DeLuca. Nation’s Restaurant News, Vol. 4 (37), p54, 1p. Retrieved from Business Source Complete 17) Nation’s Restaurant News (June 2010). Top 100 Chains Ranked by Growth In U. S. Franchise Units. Retrieved, in 15th July, from Business Source Complete 18) Lee A. Obringer. (June 2010). How Marketing Plans Work. Retrieved, in 16th July 2011, http://money. howstuffworks. com/marketing-plan24. htm 19) CSPI (January 2009). Subway Urged to Set Nutritional Standards for Foods Marketed to Children. Center for Science in Public interest. Retrieved, in 16th July 2011, http://www. cspinet. org/new/200901141. html Appendices A. Subway’s J-Curve [pic]

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Public Bank Group : strategy and analysis

Executive SummaryThe rubric of this assignment is Public Bank Group and it consists of a sum of three subdivisions in this assignment. The first subdivision explains about the scheme and mission statement that practiced by Public Bank, and the linkage between scheme and mission statement of Public Bank. The 2nd subdivision of the assignment explains about the organisation construction design of Public Bank and what is the importance and forte of the construction that applied by Public Bank. The last subdivision of the assignment contains of the competition arise between Public Bank, Maybank, and CIMB Bank. Besides that, I would take SWOT analysis to analyse the competition arise between its rivals in order to cognize whose is better. Assorted methods have been used to research for findings such as interview, e-brary, cyberspace, and books.Table of ContentssExecutive Summary Table of Contentss 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Mission Statement and Strategy of Public Bank 2.1 Mission of Public Bank Group 2.2 The linkage between Mission of and Strategy of the Public Bank Group 2.3 Drumhead 3.0 Organization Structure Design of the Public Bank Group 3.1 Interviewee Statement 3.2 Divisional Structure of Public Bank Jalan Yang Kalsom 3.3 Drumhead 4.0 Competition Arise between Public Bank, Maybank and CIMB Bank 4.1 Identify the Public Bank Group’s Rivals 4.2 SWOT Analysis 4.3 Drumhead 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 6.0 Mentions 7.0 Appendix1.0 IntroductionStrategic direction is a set of managerial determinations and actions that determine the long tally public presentation of a corporation as stated in Strategic direction and concern policy ( Wheelen and Hunger, 2012 ) . The assignment rubric is about Public Bank Group in Malaysia. Public Bank Group is the 3rd largest banking group in Malaysia by plus size with entire assets of RM305.73 billion as at the terminal of 2013, and is ranked 2nd among all the public listed companies on Bursa Malaysia Securities in footings of market capitalisation. There are entire of three subdivisions in the assignment. Section one will be covering the scheme and mission statement that practiced by Public Bank Group. Furthermore, subdivision two will be covering the organisation construction design that applied by Public Bank Group while subdivision three will be covering the competition arise between Public Bank Group and its rivals which is CIMB Bank and Maybank.2.0 Mission Statement and Strategy of Public BankBased on the Idaho National Laboratory (, 2014 ) , Mission Definition consists of those actions taken to specify the mission for a system and the environment that affects its executing. The mission statement must specify the bing status that justifies the plan or undertaking demand, the coveted terminal province or merchandise ( s ) , and the public presentation outlook.2.1 Mission of Public Bank GroupHarmonizing to the one-year study of Public Bank Group ( Public Bank Berhad, 2013 ) , the corporate mission of Public Bank Group is to prolong the place of being the most efficient, profitable and respected premier fiscal establishment in Malaysia. To accomplish the corporate mission, Public Bank Group will hold a corporate scheme that sets out what its long-run aims are in footings of what concern it plans to be involved and concern scheme that sets out how the organisation plans to win in a given concern country.2.2 The linkage between Mission of and Strategy of the Public Bank GroupAs we mentioned earlier, Public Bank Group adopts corporate scheme that focused on consistent growing scheme, which is to prosecute organic growing in the retail banking concern concentrating on the broad-based retail consumers and small-and moderate-sized endeavors ( â€Å" SMEs † ) , and strives to farther increase its leading in the retail banking market as stated in official web site of Public Bank Group (, n.d. ) . A recent article ( Nickols, 2011 ) , stated that a scheme or general program of action might be formulated for wide, long-run, corporate ends and aims, for more specific concern unit ends and aims, or for a functional unit, even one every bit little as a cost centre. There are different degrees of scheme within an organisation which is corporate scheme, concern scheme and functional scheme. Corporate scheme ( Yunizal Arief, 2014 ) , is a scheme of corporate that requires the company’s top directors and determination addressed to the satisfaction of the stakeholders of the company. The directors at the corporate degree by and large make up one's mind what sort of concern to be conducted to bring forth long-run net income maximization and better the company’s gross stockholders. Furthermore, corporate scheme can take for growing, stableness or reclamation. The Unlocking the concern environment ( Brinkman, 2010 ) , published that a growing scheme aims to increase the sum of concern undertaken by spread outing the scope of merchandises or services, and the markets it serves. As defined in Strategic direction ( Dess and Miller, 1993 ) , concern scheme is all about how houses compete, and in concern, competition is all about value: making it and capturing it. From the information above, we can reason that the schemes that practiced by Public Bank Group are able to accomplish their mission statement because the schemes and mission statement are interrelated. Therefore, to accomplish the place of being the most profitable, Public Bank Group adopts corporate scheme that focused on consistent growing scheme. Harmonizing to Ivey Business Journal ( Liabotis, 2007 ) , far excessively many companies fail to accomplish their growing marks in gross and profitableness. However, the chance of accomplishing profitable growing is heightened whenever an organisation has a clear growing scheme and strong executing substructure. One without the other impairs the chance of success. Furthermore, to prolong the place of being the most efficient, Public Bank Group adopts concern scheme that focused on the Group ‘s retail banking concern continues to aim retail consumer and commercial loans and funding, sedimentations and fee-based concerns. Besides that, to drive concern growing and increase its market portion in retail banking, the Public Bank Group leverages on its well-established client service substructure, procedures and patterns to present prompt and consistent service to run into the demands of its clients. As stated by The Boston Group ( Leichtfuss et al. , 2010 ) , Banks should take stairss to ingrain cost efficiency by industrialising procedures, set uping cardinal or regional processing centres, and developing IT and operations platforms. Therefore, all Bankss will be forced to better their procedure efficiency in the coming old ages, non merely to cut down costs but besides better client service.2.3 DrumheadBy analysing the Public Bank Groupâ₠¬â„¢s scheme through the one-year study 2013, we could reason that Public Bank Group able to accomplish the mission statement as mentioned above.3.0 Organization Structure Design of the Public Bank GroupBased on Unlocking the concern environment ( Brinkman, 2010 ) , the manner an organisation organizes itself in footings of who does desire, and who reports to whom, is fundamentally what organisational construction is concerned with. The construction of an organisation needs to guarantee that it is able to accomplish its mission and aims in an effectual and efficient mode. In other words, an organisation needs to be structured in an appropriate manner to acquire things done, while besides enabling a grade of flexibleness that will enable it to run into what can frequently be fast paced alterations in the external concern environment. Sometimes, direction may make up one's mind that the construction of an organisation needs to alter, and this is referred to as organisational design.3.1 Interviewee StatementName: Sarah Choong Suet Yee Position: Senior Financial ExecutiveWhat is the organisational construction of this subdivision?One subdivision directorOne Business Managers ( loan and mortgage )Assistant subdivision director ( operation )Departments:SOO- Senior Operation OfficerOO- Operation OfficerOIC- Officer in ChargeWhat are the classs of section in this subdivision?Investing – insurance & A ; unit trustCredit Card – recognition card & A ; safety boxCustomer Service – Customer service representatives ( CSR )Operationss ( Teller, under control of OO )3.2 Divisional Structure of Public Bank Jalan Yang KalsomAs stated by Strategic Management ( Miller and Dess, 1998 ) , a divisional or strategic concern unit ( SBU ) is a construction covers a set of comparatively independent entities governed by a cardinal disposal. Harmonizing to Miss Choong the Senior Financial Executive of Public Bank Group in Ipoh Jalan Yang Kalsom Branch, the organisation construction that applied by Public Bank is one subdivision director, one concern troughs ( loan and mortgage ) and adjunct subdivision director ( operation ) . Hence, I assumed that the organisation construction that applied by Public Bank Group is divisional construction. Figure 1: Organization construction of Public Bank Branch at Jalan Yang Kalsom ( Own Adaptation, 2014 ) As the figure above, subdivision director is ranked highest place in the Public Bank Branch Jalan Yang Kalsom. The subdivision director of Public Bank Jalan Yang Kalsom will make up one's mind the concluding determination of all the planning and waies. After that, the concern trough and the helper subdivision director will be in-charge on the loan and mortgage unit. Furthermore, the helper subdivision director will be in-charge on the client service unit, investing unit, operation unit and recognition card unit. For illustration, a client is confronting history jobs so the client will be served by the officer at client service unit. The divisional construction is of import to the Public Bank Group because it helps organisation to avoid many jobs typically found in organisations structured by map. Furthermore, directors can more dressed ore on their ain peculiar merchandise lines and markets, and they have entree to resources and staff functional specializers. Delegating determination devising to take down managerial degrees moves determinations closer to merchandises and markets, which facilitates faster determinations from those who are more specialised and knowing in the merchandise country. This allows a high grade of accent to be placed on merchandises and markets. Besides that, it besides improves a firm’s ability to accommodate during rapid environmental alteration.3.3 DrumheadIn short, the organisation construction design is really of import to all the organisations particularly Public Bank Group. The divisional construction helps Public Bank Group to avoid many jobs typically found in organisation structured by map.4.0 Competition Arise between Public Bank, Maybank and CIMB BankWhen there is competition arise between Public Bank, Maybank, and CIMB Bank, Public Bank needs to happen out about its rivals. The first measure is rival analysis which is the procedure of placing cardinal rivals ; measuring their aims, schemes, strengths, and failings. In this manner, the company would be able to happen countries of possible competitory advantages and disadvantages as stated in the Principles of Marketing ( Kotler and Armstrong, 1991 ) .4.2 SWOT AnalysisIn this subdivision, I will utilize SWOT analysis to analyse the competition arise between Public Bank, Maybank, and CIMB Bank. Based on The Principles of Marketing ( Kotler and Armstrong, 1991 ) , SWOT analysis is an overall rating of the company’s strengths, failings, chances, and menaces. Strengths include internal capablenesss, resources, and positive stuational factors that may assist the company to function its clients an d accomplish its aims. Failings include internal restrictions and negative stituational factors that may interfere with the company’s public presentation. Opportunities are favourable factors or tendencies in the external environment that the company may be able to work to its advantage. And menaces are unfavourable external factors or tendencies that may show challenges to public presentation.4.3 DrumheadAs the illustrated on Table 1, I’m assume that the scheme used by Public Bank is better than Maybank and CIMB Bank because Public Bank has the nucleus competences with the higher one-year returns increasing yearly and unbroken net income path record of their group. Harmonizing to the Pubic Bank Investor Presentation Citi ASEAN Investor Conference 2014 Singapore ( Public Bank Berhad, 2014 ) , Public Bank has 47 old ages of unbroken profitableness and healthy net income growing in the past 5 old ages.5.0 Conclusion and RecommendationsStrategic direction is a set of mana gerial determinations and actions that determine the long-term public presentation of a corporation as stated in Strategic direction and concern policy ( Wheelen and Hunger, 2012 ) . In subdivision 1, Public Bank Group has adopts the growing scheme and concern scheme in order to accomplish the corporate mission â€Å"To sustain the place of being the most efficient, profitable and respected premier fiscal establishment in Malaysia† . In subdivision 2, the divisional construction has brings a batch of benefit to all the organisation particularly Public Bank Group where it helps the organisation to avoid many jobs typically found in organisations structured by map. In subdivision 3, Public Bank is much better after compared with its rivals which is Maybank and CIMB Bank through the SWOT analysis. Last but non least, the recommendation for the Public Bank Group is to maintain set more attempts on their development in order to accomplish and prolong the place of being the most efficient, profitable and respected premier fiscal establishment in Malaysia.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Credentials vs. Skills

Credentials vs. Skills vs. Talent Credentials Most people in the world of work are looking for credentials. They're the gates that people pass in order to appear better to others. Some put a lot of effort and money into getting these. Credentials can pay off because they're good at fooling (most) people. Credentials is one reason we got into the financial mess we did. Investments got rated triple-A when they were really Junk. People trusted the ratings agencies, so these investments got called â€Å"safe. † In other words, credentials are for those that don't know how to Judge quality. Sometimes they're right, sometimes they're wrong.They exist because the modern world is complicated, and we can't be experts as everything. Skills Skills are why I love the web. They're hard to show off, because they need to be seen in person. (If they're talked about instead of seen, they become credentials! ) But on the web, you can prove that you know what you're talking about by Just doing i t. Skills often pass off as talent, because people like to believe the myth of the â€Å"overnight success. † They might think you were born with it, and you can let them believe that. But most people can develop the equivalent of talent by working hard and developing the skills instead.In fact, with hard work, skills supersede talent. This is where I think most people need to work at. Talent Talent is unprocurable. If you have it, it shows, but most people still need the evidence (e credentials) to get you where you need to go. If you don't have it, you can't get it- but don't worry. It's likely that everyone around you that you think has talent probably has skills instead. So don't feel left out. 🙂 The Pyramid If you have talent, you can sometimes get away with not developing the skills. If you don't have the talent, you can work to develop the skills that you want or have instead, and you'll end up in a great spot. Learning to work hard is the first step. ) If you don't have anything else, then you need the credentials. Otherwise, you might be able to skip them. In fact, I recommend it. Most people say they need the credentials because they need evidence. That can be true, but it will always be the long way around. Credentials make you pass through far too many hoops- consider how long it took you to graduate high school vs†¦ How long you would have needed if you were doing it on your own time. Credentials vs†¦ Skills

Friday, September 13, 2019

Working with Youth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Working with Youth - Essay Example Without that belief, the young people will not be motivated enough to participate in challenges. Second, it is important to find useful positions for young people within the community. Providing meaningful contributions through such roles will help give young people the confidence they need. Third, groups must provide regular opportunities for young people to serve the community – at least one hour a week, but hopefully more. By providing an ongoing opportunity, these groups will build habits that will last a lifetime. Fourth, the group must provide a safe atmosphere where young people will feel the freedom to fail – and to get back up and succeed (Search Institute, 2011). The Tahoe SAFE Alliance is dedicated to eliminating violent behavior in teenagers. By focusing on such topics as mutual respect, self-esteem, and the traits of healthy relationships, this group seeks to undo much of the damage that has taken place in homes. There are several different elements to this groups curriculum, but the overriding theme is building an atmosphere of respect and dignity in which teens can reassemble their own self-concept and then move outward to work against violence wherever they find it (Tahoe SAFE Alliance,

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Crosstalk IT Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Crosstalk IT - Coursework Example The first type of coupling or conductive coupling is a result of the establishment of physical contact between conductors. Inductive crosstalk results when the current passing through a single conductor results in the generation of a similar current in another conductor. The third type of crosstalk or capacitive coupling is the resultant of the coming together of two or more conductors such that they begin to act as a capacitor. Figure 1: Introduction to Crosstalk. Source: Crosstalk may be PREVENTED by enabling the positioning of conductors to be at respective distances. Instead, the introduction of insulation between the conductors may also result in the lessening of crosstalk. Practically it is not possible to separate out wires in distances therefore the option for insulation is better. Crosstalk due to inductive capacitance may be eliminated by twisted the inducing cables around each other. The inter-wound cables are often referred to as twisted pair cables. The way crosstalk gets reduced is due to the reduction of the field size cross section on which crosstalk may occur. Thus electromagnetic interference gets reduced considerably. Digital signals are often affected less or not at all by crosstalk. The signals mostly affected are those that are analogue in nature. The term has been chosen owing to my personal experience of handling issues related to it in my organization. The networking setup had old fixtures within the entire organizational setup and had to be replaced with better cables that proposed reduced interferences and thus lesser possibilities of crosstalk. CAT 6 CABLE Ethernet or LAN to put simply is the means by which the computer systems present within a closed area are connected together into a network via hardware cables. The cables used for the said process are of various standards. CAT 6 Cable is one of them. The technology of the Ethernet is integral for organizational networks and so is the presence of CAT 6 cable in it. Figure 2 Cat 6 Cable. Source: It is given the name CAT 6 because it belongs to the sixth generation of cables that have been made for the Ethernet technology. Specifically it may be said that it supports the following gigabit Ethernet technologies: 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T/1000BASE-TX. The cable consists of eight wires just like its predecessor Cat 5 cable. However it is different from its former version in the manner that it makes use of all its 4 pairs in data transfer. The Category 6 Cable was used in the establishment of the Local Area Network of the Organization for which I work. The selection and successful installation of this cable was my task and that is how I encountered it. This cable was preferred over the rest of the available option because it is the latest version of cables that complies fully with the standard Ethernet Protocols fo Data Transfer and provides efficient data transfer without any da ta loss. MP3 MP3 is a short form of MPEG-2 Audio Layer III. It is a standard format for digital music storage that was designed by Motion Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) around mid-1990s. High quality audio files can be created using this standard with extremely optimized storage space. MP3 format is widely used over the internet to share and transfer audio files. How the magic of MP3 works. The

The Cater Administration and the Evolution of American Nuclear Essay

The Cater Administration and the Evolution of American Nuclear Non-profileration Policy - Essay Example t nuclear power cannot be used in our time, but these people overlook the fact that some marginalized countries already have nuclear technologies, and their nuclear potential is constantly increasing. Furthermore, it is considered that such countries as Iran and Northern Korea are developing their own nuclear programs. The aim of the Carter administration’s non-proliferation measures was to decrease the whole amount of nuclear weapons in the world and to control possible proliferation. Michael J. Martinez in his article The Carter Administration and the Evolution of American Nonproliferation Policy, 1977-1981 has analyzed the main features of Carter’s non-proliferation policy. This paper will briefly explain America’s nuclear non-proliferation policy from 1945-1977; it will also discuss the Carter’s ability to influence the policy process, as well as positive and negative results of Carter’s non-proliferation policy. 2. â€Å"Non-proliferation policy† refers to foreign policy measures directed at reducing world nuclear weapons through international treaties between states possessing nuclear technology or trying to have it. American nuclear non-proliferation policy from 1945 until 1977 has greatly changed. These changes were dictated by unstable foreign policy situations which were evident in the constant tension between the United States with its European allies and the Soviet Union. After World War II, former Anti-Hitler Coalition allies frequently disagreed and constantly confronted each other, which resulted in the Cold War. After World War II and in the beginning of the Cold War, U.S. efforts were directed toward stopping proliferation and halting the development of nuclear programs of the Soviet Union and its Socialist allies. American nuclear policy also was concentrated on assisting U.S. allies to develop defensive nuclear capabilities in Western Europe. Nuclear bomb testing by Fra nce changed the U.S. strategy pursued strict non-proliferation

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Hyperopia (eye defect) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Hyperopia (eye defect) - Essay Example For example, in mild cases of this disorder eyes may focus without corrective lenses. In some other forms of hyperopia, eyeglasses or contact lenses can be prescribed. As a rule, new born children have some problems of hyoperopia (Tsubota, Boxer Wacher, Azar, and Koch, 2003). This can be explained by an abnormal in eyeball length. This disorder is characterized by inability of the retina to reflect light primary to changing into a focused image, which can lead to difficulty seeing of close objects (Eye Health: Presbyopia and Your Eyes, October, 2005). Different mistakes of vision can be explained in terms of hyperopia, for example a person can have from none to clear distance vision or blurry near vision (Edmiston). The brains of a child with hyperopia cannot identify sharp lines. Parents of these children cannot understand that the child has some problems at an early age. A child with hyperopia can have problems when focusing one's attention on a particular object. There is a lackin g of a child's ability identify images. Some serious cases of hyperopia prevent brains from merging the images identified by individual eyes. This can be explained by blurred images received from brains. ... This type of drops relaxes the accommodation. The patient's visual status can be determined with the help of hand-held instrument called a retinoscope. It is possible to measure a refractive error in units called diopters (D) (Chou, 2006.) This disease is also known as farsightedness, when a person can see distant objects clearly, but close objects as blurred ones. Individuals suffering hyperopia can experience it in a different manner. Hyperopia is more characterized as eye disorder, but not as a disease. On the basis of recent researches and studies it is possible to find out different characteristics of this eye disorder. For example, the scientists have claimed that age of people and their gender influences development of this disorder. Female gender patients are more subjected to hyperopia. Other scientists claim that males are more subjected to this eye disorder. Actually, it is relevant to refer to the reliability of data and statistics used to rely on the results of the studi es. In accordance with findings of 2010: â€Å"farsightedness commonly affects people during middle age - during their 40s or 50s, but it may also be present from birth. The majority of children who are born with some degree of hyperopia tend to get better as they get older and their eyes develop† (Nordqvist, 2010). The National Health Service (NHS), UK, underlines that 13.2% of British people suffer this disorder, though they are 20-25 years aged. If to consider hyperopia from a physiological point of view, it is possible to see that there are the following features, which are appropriate for people suffering from it. The cornea is a front part of an eye that transmits the light and focuses it in the eye. The lens is so-called transparent structures in the